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Basic Computer Structure and Knowledge

By Dualmasti - Monday, May 28, 2012

Basic Computer Structure

Logical Structure of a computer includes:

  • BIOS (The Basic Input Output System)
  • CPU (The Processor)
  • Memory / RAM (Temporary Storage)
  • Hard Disk (Permanent Storage)
  • Input / Output Device
  • Communication Channel (Eg. USB)
  • Bus (High Speed Internal Communication)
  • Other Add-on Device… 

Example of a Computer Structure:

tech-shailesh computer structure

  • Basic Input Output System
  • Store all the parameter before the OS Load(Example are Hard Disk Size, MemorySpeed, Turn on or turn off the build in device such as Sound Card, USB, printer etc)
  • Usually stored in Flash Memory
One of the BIOS Screen Dump:

bios tech-shailesh

Identify the Component - CPU:
  • Central Processing Unit
  • It is the core of a computer.
  • Responsible for all the calculation and part of the video.
  • Usually in the Speed of GHz
  • 1G around 1,000 MHz
  • 1M = 1Million Instruction / second
  • Some Expensive CPU have more build in memory (Cache Memory)
How to Choose a CPU ?

  • Mainly AMD / Intel Dominate the Market.
  • In the current market you have several categories of microprocessors to choose for your desktop computers: Xeon, Pentium IV, Celeron, Dual Core, Quad Core, Athlon, and AMDX64 etc.
  • Price vs. Performance: There is typically no good correlation between these two factors, especially at the top speeds. Average users should not purchase the top-speed on the market. The price difference is not worthy of the performance difference.
  • Based on your budget, find a suitable CPU.
Memory / RAM :

RAM – Random Access Memory:
ram tech-shailesh

  • Act as a temporary Storage.
  • EDO > SDRAM > DDR > DDR2
  • All data stored in memory are volatile. (Need electricity to keep the data)
  • Memory Size is around 256M / 512M / 1G / 2G per memory module
  • Basic Configuration is around 512M RAM

Hard Disk (ATA / SATA / SCSI) :
hard disk

  • Used to stored data permanently.
  • Different Type of Hard Disk Size (3.5”, 2.5”, 1.8”, Micro Drive)
  • Different Interface : ATA / SATA / SCSI (Speed : ATA < SATA < SCSI)
  • Different Speed (Mechanical) (4,200rpm / 5,400rpm / 7,200rpm / 10,000 rpm )
  • Different Build in Memory Size (2M / 8M / 16M etc)
  • Different Capacity (80G to 500G or even 1T)
  • Small Size Hard Disk are more popular as they are portable size.

Main Board / Mother Board (MB):

  • Provide a platform to connecting all the devices. (Keyboard / Mouse / Power / CPU / Memory / Hard Disk Floppy Disk / Display Card etc)
  • Many Main Board has already build in Sound Card / Network Card or even display card.

I/O Device & Interface:
  • ATA / SATA /SCSI (For Hard Disk)
  • Parallel Port or LPT Port (For Printer)
  • COM Port (For Modem)
  • RJ45 Socket (For Network)
  • PS/2 (For Keyboard / Mouse)
  • D-Sub / DVI (For Monitor)
  • USB (All compatible device)

Power Supply:

  • Power Supply Convert the A.C. Voltage to Lower D.C.Voltage which is suitable for Computer.
  • Power Supply can be classified by their loading (Watt).
  • Different type of socket for different device.

computer case

  • Case is used to place the main board and the power supply.
  • Most case have external USB connection.

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